Free Lesson: How To Control Solids in Oil and Gas Projects

FREE LECTURE 

How to control Solids in Oil and Gas Projects

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[Automatic Transcription]

When drilling and oil or gas well the drilling fluid transports the formation drill to the surface if these solids remain in the drilling fluid they will affect all areas of the drilling operation as they are continually grown down into smaller particles the rate of penetration will be reduced mechanical parts in the circulating system will wear at a faster rate treatment costs will be increased due to increased surface area of the solid particles mud weights may increase leading to higher pressures and loss circulation filter cake thickness may also increase leading to stuck pipe and many other negative effects on the drilling operations may occur therefore these solids need to be separated from the drilling fluid in order to separate the solids from the fluid various pieces of mechanical equipment are utilized the objectives of solids control are to reduce the drilling fluid maintenance cost by reducing the level of undesirable solids other important factors to consider are they affect the solids content and solid size have on the overall drilling performance such as ROP and while and logging for example but we asked not least the effect the solids content type and size have on the reservoir in the drilling fluid they are good solids and bad solids good solids would be the ones that are specifically added to the fluid for if particular function such as weep material and bridging agents state-of-the-art solids control equipment includes various new and improved versions of the original equipment first introduced into the oil industry many years ago although much more efficient and robust today the technology has changed little over the past few decades the CL shaker remains the primary solids control equipment used during drilling operations however with the installation of scalping shakers upstream from the main shell shakers the performance of solids removal downstream has been great improved a secondary solids removal equipment our Hydra cyclones the basic operating principle of this device involves the centrifugal force brought about by the high velocity of the drilling fluid spinning in the cone forcing the larger and heavier solids to settle outward toward the cyclone wall and downward toward the under flue solids discharge orifice most rigs also have at least one decanting centrifuge installed for the attempted removal of near colloidal sized particles centrifuges come in different ball sizes and g-force levels in order to evaluate the removal capabilities of the various pieces of mechanical treating equipment want you to remember how solids are classified according to size here we see that large drill solids are classified as anything larger than four hundred and forty microns sand is classified from 74to 440 micron size silt from 2 to 74micron size clay from 0.5 to 2 micron size and colloidal x’ anything less than0.5 micron size there are four basic methods of solids control mechanical treatment chemical treatment dye Lucian of the mud with water and the dump and dilute method where use mud is discarded and new mud is mixed and added to the system all of the above with the exception of mechanical treatment in couhigher costs mechanical treatment is a method of mechanically removing solids using shale shakers or hydro cyclones example d Sanders and assaulter it is important to realize the limitation of each piece of equipment these limitations are asphalt the scalping shaker will remove 440 microns or larger the fine mesh shale shaker will remove74 microns or larger the de Sanders will remove 100 microns or larger the dissenters from the 20 to 50 micron reach and larger centrifuges dependent upon the bowl size and g-force will generally remove any fit nothing less than 15 microns correctly implemented each piece of mechanical equipment is effective only within a certain particle size range utilizing all or a combination of the above equipment throughout the drilling operations would give maximum benefits and result in a cost effective method to control the build-up of solids and fines.

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